Ben J. H. Matthews

PhD Thesis

October 1999

School of Environmental Sciences,

University of East Anglia, Norwich


Prof P.S.Liss

Dr P.D. Nightingale

this work was funded primarily by research grants from the

European Study of Carbon in the Ocean Biosphere and Atmosphere



© The web edition of this thesis is provided on condition that anyone who consults it is understood to recognise that its copyright rests with the author and that no quotation from the thesis, nor any information derived therefrom, may be published without the author's prior, written consent.

Notes about the web edition

This website contains the whole thesis, about 130,000 words in 10 chapters, plus 92 figures, 21 tables, and about 300 references. To speed downloading of the main text, the figures and tables are in seperate files and appear in their own window (or frame). To make it easy to find your way about, hyperlinks are provided for all the cross references to other sections of text, to tables and to figures. The contents and table of figures are also hyperlinked.

If you wish to study this thesis offline, you can download everything (or just the text) as a zip package, it's remarkably compact.

Excepting hyperlinks, the text and figures in this web edition are identical to those in the printed copy.

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Continue to read the Abstract

If you jumped into this page from elsewhere, you may find it more convenient to go to the "frames" version of this thesis, alternatively you can use the links below to jump straight to a particular chapter:

Figures Contents Overview Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 Chapter4 Chapter5 Chapter6 Chapter7 Chapter8 Chapter9 Chapter10 Appendix References Acknowledgements Links Download

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