The Rate of Air-Sea CO2 Exchange: Chemical Enhancement and Catalysis by Marine Microalgae.


Jump to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Aizawa K., Miyachi. S., 1986, Carbonic Anhydrase and Carbon Concentrating Mechanisms in Microalgae and Cyanobacteria, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 39, 215-233

Alldredge A.L., Gotschalk C., Passow U., Riebesell, U, 1995, Mass Aggregation of Diatom Blooms - Insights from a Mesocosm Study, Deep-Sea Research Part II, 42, 9-27

Amoroso G., Weber C., Sultemeyer D., Fock H., 1996, Intracellular Carbonic-Anhydrase Activities in Dunaliella- Tertiolecta (Butcher) and Chlamydomonas-Reinhardtii (Dangeard) in Relation to Inorganic Carbon Concentration During Growth - Further Evidence for the Existence of 2 Distinct Carbonic- Anhydrases A, Planta, 199, 177-184

Anderson M.L., Johnson. B.D., 1992, Gas Transfer: a Gas Tension Method for Studying Equilibration Across a Gas-Water Interface, Journal of Geophysical Research, 97 C11, 17899-17904

Arrhenius S., 1896, Philos. Mag. 5, 41, 237

Asher W., Wanninkhof R., 1998a, Transient Tracers and Air-Sea Gas Transfer, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 103 C8, 15939-15958

Asher W.E., Karle L.M., Higgins B.J., Farley P.J., Monahan E.C., Leifer I.S., 1996, The Influence of Bubble Plumes on Air-Seawater Gas Transfer Velocities, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 101, C5, 12027-12041

Asher W.E., Wanninkhof R., 1998b, The Effect of Bubble-Mediated Gas Transfer on Purposeful Dual-Gaseous Tracer Experiments, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 103 C5, 10555-10560

Asher W.E., 1997, The Sea-Surface Microlayer and its Effect on Global Air-Sea Gas Transfer, In "The Sea Surface and Global Change", Eds P.S. Liss and R.A. Duce, 251-285

Badger M.R., Price. G.D., 1992, The CO2 Concentrating Mechanism in Cyanobacteria and Microalgae, Physiologia Plantarum, 84, 606-615

Badger M.R., Price. G.D., 1994, The Role of Carbonic Anhydrase in Photosynthesis, Annual Reviews of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 45, 369-392

Bakker D.C.E., DeBaar H.J.W., de Wilde H.P.J., 1996, Dissolved Carbon Dioxide in Dutch Coastal Waters, Marine Chemistry, 55, 247-263

Bakker D.C.E., DeBaar H.J.W., Bathmann U.V., 1997, Changes of Carbon Dioxide in Surface Waters During Spring in the Southern Ocean, Deep-Sea Research Part II, 44, 91-127

Bates N.R., Hansell D.A., Carlson C.A., Gordon L.I., 1998, Distribution of CO2 Species, Estimates of Net Community Production, and Air-Sea CO2 Exchange in the Ross Sea Polynya, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 103 C2, 2883-2896

Beer S., 1996, Photosynthetic Utilization of Inorganic Carbon in Ulva, Scientia Marina, 60, C1, 125-128

Bellerby R.G.J., Millward G.E., Turner D.R., Worsfold P.J., 1993, Approaches to the Continuous Monitoring of Seawater pH and Its Role in the Global Carbon-Cycle, TRAC-Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 12, 382-386

Ben-Yaakov S., 1972, Diffusuin of Sea Water Ions - 1. Diffusion of Seawater into a Dilute Solution., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 36, 1395-1406

Berger R., Libby. W.F., 1969, Equilibration of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide with Seawater:- Possible Enzymatic Control of the Rate, Science, 164, 1395-1397

Berman-Frank I., Kaplan. A., Zohary. T., Dubinsky. Z., 1995, Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in the Bloom Forming Dinoflagellate Peridinium Gatunense, Journal of Phycology, 31, 906-913

Berman-Frank I., Zohray. T., Erez. J., Dubzinsky. Z., 1994, CO2 Availability, Carbonic Anhydrase, and the Annual Dinoflagellate Bloom in Lake Kinneret, Limnology and Oceanography, 39, 1822-1834

Bock E.J., Frew N.M., 1993, Static and Dynamic-Response of Natural Multicomponent Oceanic Surface-Films to Compression and Dilation - Laboratory and Field Observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 98 C8, 14599-14617

Bolin B., 1960, On the Exchange of Carbon Dioxide Betwen the Atmosphere and the Sea, Tellus, 12, 275-281

Boutin J., Etcheto J., 1991, Intrinsic Error in the Air-Sea CO2 Exchange Coefficient Resulting from the Use of Satellite Wind Speeds, Tellus Series B, 43, 236-246

Boutin J., Etcheto J., 1997, Long-Term Variability of the Air-Sea CO2 Exchange Coefficient: Consequences for the CO2 Fluxes in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 11, 453-470

Boutin J., Etcheto J., Ciais P., 1997, Possible Consequences of the Chemical Enhancement Effect for Air-Sea CO2 Flux Estimates, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 24, 411-416

Brockmann U.H., Kattner G., Hentzschel G., Wandschneider K., Junge D.H., Huhnerfuss H., 1976, Naturliche Oberflaschenfilme in Seegebeit Vor Sylt, Marine Biology, 36, 135-146

Broecker W.S., Peng T.H., 1974, Gas Exchange Rates Between Air and Sea, Tellus, 26, 21-35

Broecker W.S., Peng T.H., Ostlund G., Stuiver M., 1985, The Distribution of Bomb Radiocarbon in the Oceans, Journal of Geophysical Research, 90, 6953-6970

Broecker W.S., Peng. T.H., 1994, Stratospheric Contribution to the Global Bomb Radiocarbon Inventory: Model Versus Observation, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 8, 377-384

Broecker W.S., Ledwell T., Takahashi T., Weiss R., Merlivat. L., Memery. L., Peng. T.H., Jahne, B., Munnich. K.O., 1986, Isotopic Versus Micrometeorologic Ocean CO2 Fluxes: a Serious Conflict, Journal of Geophysical Research, 91 C9, 10517-10527

Broecker W.S., Peng T.H., 1993, Evaluation of the 13C Constraint on the Uptake of Fossil-Fuel CO2 by the Ocean, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 7, 619-626

Broecker W.S., Wanninkhof R., Mathieu G., Peng T.H., Stine S., Robinson S., Herczeg A., Stuiver M., 1988, The Radiocarbon Budget for Mono Lake - an Unsolved Mystery, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 88-2, 16-26

Broecker H.C., Siems, W., 1984, The Role of Bubbles for Gas Transfer from Water to Air at Higher Windspeeds. Experiments in the Wind-Wave Facility in Hamburg., In, "Gas Transfers at Water Surfaces" Eds W.Brutstaert and G.H. Jirka., Reidel, 229-236

Brown J.W., Skop R.A., Viechnicki J., Tseng R.S., 1992, Transport of Surface-Active Organic Materials from Seawater to the Air-Water-Interface by an Ascending Current Field, Fluid Dynamics Research, 9-3, 97-105

Bruland K.W., 1980, Oceanographic Distributions of Cadmium, Zinc, Nickel and Copper in the North Pacific, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 47, 176-198

Bundy H.F., 1986, Comparative Kinetics and Inhibition of a Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme from Chlamydomonas Reinhardii, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 84B, 63-69

Carlson D., Cantey. J., Cullen. J. J., 1988, Description and Results from a New Surface Microlayer Sampling Device, Deep Sea Research, 35, 1205-1213

Carlucci A.F., Wolgast D.M., Craven D.B., 1992, Microbial-Populations in Surface-Films - Amino-Acid Dynamics in Nearshore and Offshore Waters Off Southern California, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 97 C4, 5271-5280

Chakraborty S., Ramesh R., Krishnaswami S., 1994, Air-Sea Exchange of CO2 in the Gulf of Kutch, Northern Arabian Sea Based on Bomb-Carbon in Corals and Tree-Rings, Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Earth and Planetary Sciences, 103, 329-340

Charlson R.J., Lovelock J.E., Andreae M.O., Warren S.G., 1987, Oceanic Phytoplankton, Atmospheric Sulphut, Cloud Albedo and Climate, Nature, 326, 655-661

Chen F.R., Kernohan. J.C., 1967, Combination of Bovine Carbonic Anydrase with a Fluorescent Sulphonamide, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 242, 5813-5823

Chisholm S.W., Morel M.M., (Eds), 1991, What Controls Phytoplankton Production in Nutrient-Rich Areas of the Open Sea?, Limnology and Oceanography, 35,

Ciais P., Denning A.S., Tans P.P., Berry J.A., Randall D.A., Collatz G.J., Sellers P.J., White J.W.C., Trolier M., Meijer H.A.J., Francey R.J., Monfray P., Heimann M., 1997, A Three-Dimensional Synthesis Study of δ18O in Atmospheric CO2 .1. Surface Fluxes, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 102, D5, 5857-5872

Clark J.F., Wanninkhof. R., Schlosser. P., Simpson. H.J., 1994, Gas Exchange Rates in the Tidal Hudson River Using a Dual Tracer Technique, Tellus, 46B, 274-285

Claustre H., 1994, The Trophic Status of Various Oceanic Provinces as Revealed by Phytoplankton Pigment Signatures, Limnology and Oceanography, 39, 1206-1210

Clayton T.D., Byrne R. H., Breland J.A., Feely R.A., Millero F.J., Campbell D.M., Murphy P.P., Lamb M.F., 1995, The Role of pH Measurements in Modern Oceanic CO2-System Characterizations: Precision and Thermodynamic Consistency, Deep Sea Research, 42-3, 411

Coale K.H., Johnson K.S, Fitzwater S.E., Gordon R.M., Tanner S., Chavez F.P., Ferioli L., Sakamoto C., Rogers P., Millero F., Steinberg P., Nightingale P., Cooper D., Cochlan W.P., Landry M. R., Constantinou J., Rollwagen G., Trasvina A., Kudela R., 1996, A Massive Phytoplankton Bloom Induced by an Ecosystem Scale Iron Fertilisation Experiment in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean, Nature, 383, 495-501

Colman B., Rotatore. C., 1995, Photosynthetic Inorganic Carbon Uptake and Accumulation in Two Marine Diatoms, Plant Cell and Environment, 18, 919-924

Compiano A.M., Romano J.C., Garabetian F., Laborde P., Delagiraudiere I., 1993, Monosaccharide Composition of Particulate Hydrolyzable Sugar Fraction in Surface Microlayers from Brackish and Marine Waters, Marine Chemistry, 42-4, 237-251

Cooper D.J., Watson A.J., Nightingale P.D., 1996, Large Decrease in Ocean Surface CO2 Fugacity in Response to In-Situ Iron Fertilisation, Nature, 383, 511-513

Cooper D.J., Watson A.J., Ling R.D., 1998, Variation of PCO2 Along a North Atlantic Shipping Route (UK to the Caribbean): a Year of Automated Observations, Marine Chemistry, 60-2, 147-164

Craig H., 1957, The Natural Distribution of Radiocarbon and the Exchange Time of Carbon Dioxide Between the Atmosphere and the Sea, Tellus, 9, 1-17

Crawford T.L., Mcmillen R.T., Meyers T.P., Hicks B.B., 1993, Spatial and Temporal Variability of Heat, Water-Vapor, Carbon-Dioxide, and Momentum Air-Sea Exchange in a Coastal Environment, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 98 D7, 12869-12880

Dandonneau Y, 1995, Sea-Surface Partial-Pressure of Carbon-Dioxide in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (August1991 to October1992) - a Multivariate- Analysis of Physical and Biological Factors, Deep-Sea Research Part II, 42-3, 349-364

Danielsson L.G., Magnusson B., Westerlund S., 1985, Cadmium, Copper, Iron, Nickel and Zinc in the Northeast Atlantic-Ocean, Marine Chemistry, 17, 23-41

Dankwerts 1951, Significance of Liquid-Film Coefficients in Gas Absorption, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 43, 1460-1467

Deacon E.L., 1977, Gas Transfer to and Across an Air-Water Interface, Tellus, 29, 363-374

Deacon E.L., 1981, Sea-Air Gas Transfer - the Wind Speed Dependence, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 21, 31-37

DeBaar H.J.W., 1992, Options for Enhancing the Storage of Carbon Dioxide in the Oceans -A Review, Energy Conversion and Management, 33,-8, 635-642

Degrandpre, M.D., Mcgillis. W.R., Frew. N.M., Bock. E.J., 1995, Laboratory Measurements of Seawater CO2 Gas Fluxes, In "Air Water Gas Transfer" Eds: B.Jahne, E.C. Monahan, AEON Verlag and Studio, Hanau

Dickson A. Goyet. C., 1994, Handbook of Methods for the Analysis of the Carbon Dioxide System in Sea Water, ORNL / CDIAC - 74 U.S.DOE,

Dickson A.G., 1993, The Measurement of Sea-Water pH, Marine Chemistry, 44-4, 131-142

Dingle A.N., 1954, The Carbon Dioixde Exchange Between the North Atlantic Ocean and the Atmospehre., Tellus, 6, 343-350

Dionosio-Sese M.L., Miyachi S., 1992, The Effect of Sodium Chloride on Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Marine Microalgae, Journal of Phycology, 28, 619-624

Doney S.C., 1995a, Irreversible Thermodynamics and Air-Sea Exchange, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100 C5, 8541-8553

Doney S.C., 1994, Irreversible Thermodynamic Coupling Between Heat and Matter Fluxes Across an Air-Water Interface, Journal of the Chemical Society Faraday Transactions, 90., 1865-1874

Donlon C.J., Robinson I.S., 1997, Observations of the Oceanic Thermal Skin in the Atlantic Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 102 C8, 18585-18606

Donolan M.A., Drennan. W.M., 1995, Direct Field Measurements of the Flux of Carbon Dioxide, In "Air Water Gas Transfer" Eds: B.Jahne, E.C. Monahan, AEON Verlag and Studio, Hanau

Drescher D.G., 1978, Purification of Blood Carbonic Anhydrases and Specific Detection of Carbonic Anhydrase Isoenzymes on Polyacrylamide Gels with 5-Dimethylaminonapthalene-1-sulphamide (DNSA) Analytical Biochemistry, 90, 349-358

Duffy P.B., Eliason A.J., Bourgeois A.J., Covey C.C., 1995, Simulation of Bomb Radiocarbon in Two Global Ocean General Circulation Models, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100 C11, 22545-22563

Emerson S., 1975b, Gas Exchange Rates in Small Canadian Shield Lakes, Limnology and Oceanography, 20, 754-761

Emerson S., 1995, Enhanced Tansport of Carbon Dioxide During Gas Exchange, In "Air Water Gas Transfer" Eds: B.Jahne, E.C. Monahan, AEON Verlag and Studio, Hanau

Emerson S., 1975a, Chemically Enhanced CO2 Exchange in a Eutrophic Lake: a General Model, Limnology and Oceanography, 20, 743-753

Emerson S., Quay P., Karl D., Winn C.,Tupas L., Landry M., 1997, Experimental Determination of the Organic Carbon Flux from Open-Ocean Surface Waters, Nature, 389, 951-954

Erickson D.J., 1993, A Stability Dependent Theory for Air-Sea Gas Exchange, Journal of Geophysical Research, 98 C5, 8471-8488

Espedal H.A., Johannessen O.M., Knulst J., 1996, Satellite Detection of Natural Films on the Ocean Surface, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 3151-3154

Etcheto J., Boutin J., Merlivat L., 1991, Seasonal-Variation of the CO2 Exchange Coefficient Over the Global Ocean Using Satellite Wind-Speed Measurements, Tellus Series B, 43, 247-255

Etcheto J., Merlivat. L., 1988, Satellite Determination of the Carbon Dioxide Exchange Coefficient at the Ocean Atmosphere Interface: a First Step, Journal of Geophysical Research, 93 C12, 15669-15678

Falkowski P.G., Barber R.T., Smetacek V., 1998, Biogeochemical Controls and Feedbacks on Ocean Primary Production, Science, 281, 200-206

Farmer D.M., McNeil C.L., Johnson B.D., 1993, Evidence for the Importance of Bubbles in Increasing Air Sea Gas Flux, Nature, 361, 620-623

Fischer H., Wahlen M., Smith J., Mastroianni D., Deck B., 1999, Ice Core Records of Atmospheric CO2 Around the Last Three Glacial Terminations, Science, 283, 1712-1714

Fisher M., Gokhman I., Pick U., Zamir A., 1996, A Salt-Resistant Plasma-Membrane Carbonic-Anhydrase is Induced by Salt in Dunaliella-Salina, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271, 17718-17723

Follows M.J., Williams R.G., Marshall J.C., 1996, The Solubility Pump of Carbon in the Subtropical Gyre of the North-Atlantic, Journal of Marine Research, 54, 605-630

Frankignoulle M., Bourge I., Canon C., Dauby P., 1996b, Distribution of Surface Seawater Partial CO2 Pressure in the English Channel and in the Southern Bight of the North-Sea, Continental Shelf Research, 16, 381-395

Frankignoulle M., Gattuso J.P., Biondo R., Bourge I., Copinmontegut G., Pichon M., 1996a, Carbon Fluxes in Coral Reefs .2. Eulerian Study of Inorganic Carbon Dynamics and Measurement of Air-Sea CO2 Exchanges, Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 145, 123- 132

Frankingnoulle M., 1988, Field Measurements of Air-Sea CO2 Exchange, Limnology and Oceanography, 33, 313-322

Frew N.M., 1997, The Role of Organic Films in Air-Sea Gas Exchange, In "The Sea Surface and Global Change", Eds P.S. Liss and R.A. Duce, Cambridge UP.,

Frew N.M., Nelson R.K., 1992, Isolation of Marine Microlayer Film Surfactants for Exsitu Study of Their Surface Physical and Chemical-Properties, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 97 C4, 5281-5290

Frew N.M., Joel. J.C., Dennet. M.R., Johnson. A.S., 1990, Impact of Phytoplankton Generated Surfactants on Air-Sea Gas Exchange, Journal of Geophysical Research, 95 C3, 3337-3352

Fuhrman J.A., Capone D.G., 1991, Possible Biogeochemical Consequences of Iron Fertilisation, Limnology and Oceanography, 36, 1951-1959

Garabetian F., 1991, 14C Glucose-Uptake and 14C CO2 Production in Surface Microlayer and Surface-Water Samples - Influence of u.v. and Visible Radiation, Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 77, 21-26

Garabetian F., 1990, CO2 Production at the Sea-Air Interface - an Approach by the Study of Respiratory Processes in Surface Microlayer, Internationale Revue Der Gesamten Hydrobiologie, 75, 219-229

Garabetian F., Romano J.C., Paul R., Sigoillot J.C., 1993, Organic-Matter Composition and Pollutant Enrichment of Sea-Surface Microlayer Inside and Outside Slicks, Marine Environmental Research, 35, 323-339

Garrett W. D, 1967, The Organic Chemical Composition of the Ocean Surface, Deep-Sea Research, 14, 221-227

Giordano M., Maberly. S.C., 1989, Distribution of Carbonic Anhydrase in British Marine Macroalgae, Oecologia, 81, 534-539

Gladyshev M.I., 1997, Biophysics of the Surface Film of Aquatic Ecosystems, In "The Sea Surface and Global Change", Eds P.S. Liss and R. A. Duce, Cambridge UP,

Goldman J.C., Dennet. M.R., 1983, Carbon Dioxide Exchange Between Air and Seawater: No Evidence for Rate Catalysis, Science, 220, 199-201

Goldman J.C., Dennett M.R., Frew N.M., 1988, Surfactant Effects on Air Sea Gas-Exchange Under Turbulent Conditions, Deep-Sea Research Part A-Oceanographic Research Papers, 35, .1953-1970

Graham D., Reed,. M.L.,Patterson. B.D., Hockley. D.G., 1984, Distribution and Physiology of Plant and Algal Carbonic Anhydrases, Annals New York Academy of Sciences, 429, 222-237

Haglund K., Pedersen M., 1992, Growth of the Red Alga Gracilaria-Tenusitipitata at High pH - Influence of Some Environmental-Factors and Correlation to an Increased Carbonic-Anhydrase Activity, Botanica Marina, 35, 579-587

Haglund K., Ramazanov. Z., Mtolera. M., Pedersen M., 1992, Role of External Carbonic Anhydrase in Light-Dependent Alkalization by (Phaeophyta) Fucus Serratus L. & Laminaria Saccharina L. Lamour, Planta, 188, 1-6

Haines M.A., Luther M.E., Fine R.A., 1997, Model-Validated Parameterization for Air-Sea Gas Transfer in the North Indian Ocean, Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 2545-2548

Hansell D.A., Bates N.R., Carlson C.A., 1997, Predominance of Vertical Loss of Carbon from Surface Waters of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean., Nature, 386, 59-61

Hansson I., 1973, A New Set of pH-Scales and Standard Buffers for Sea Water, Deep Sea Research, 20, 479-491

Hardy J.T., 1997, Biological Effects of Chemicals in the Sea-Surface Microlayer, In "The Sea Surface and Global Change", Eds P.S. Liss and R.A. Duce, Cambridge UP,

Hardy J.T., Cleary J., 1992, Surface Microlayer Contamination and Toxicity in the German Bight, Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 91, 203-210

Hardy J.T., Apts C.W., 1984, The Sea Surface Microlayer: Phytoneuston Productivity and Effects of Atmospheric Particulate Matter, Marine Biology, 82, 293-300

Hardy J.T., Apts C.W., 1989, Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction: High Rates in the Sea-Surface Microlayer, Marine Biology, 101, 411-417

Hardy J.T., Coley J.A., Antrim L.D., Kiesser S.L., 1988, A Hydrophobic Large-Volume Sampler for Collecting Aquatic Surface Microlayers: Characterization and Comparison with the Glass Plate Method, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 45, 822-826

Hardy, J.T., Hunter K.A., Calmet D., Cleary J.J., Due R.A., Forbes T.L., Gladyshev M.L., Harding G., Shenker J.M., Tratnyek P., Zaitsev Y., 1997, Biological Effects of Chemical and Radiative Change in the Sea Surface, In "The Sea Surface and Global Change", Eds P.S. Liss and R.A. Duce, Cambridge UP,

Harvey G.W., Burzell L.A., 1972, A Simple Microlayer Method for Small Samples, Limnology and Oceanography, 11, 798-801

Hasse L., 1997, Transport Processes Across the Sea-Surface Microlayer, In "The Sea Surface and Global Change", Eds P.S. Liss and R.A. Duce, Cambridge UP,

Hasse L., 1971, The Sea Surface Temperature Deviation and the Head Flow at the Sea-Air Interface, Boundry Layer Meteorology, 1, 368-379

Haussecker H., Jahne B., 1995, In Situ Measurements of the Air-Sea Gas Transfer Rate During the MBL/COOP West-Coast Experiment., In "Air Water Gas Transfer" Eds B.Jahne and E.C. Monahan, AEON Verlag & Studio, Hanau, Germany, 775-784

Hein M., 1997, Inorganic Carbon Limitation of Photosynthesis in Lake Phytoplankton, Freshwater Biology, 37, 545-552

Hein M., Sand-Jensen K., 1997, CO2 Increases Oceanic Primary Production, Nature, 388, 526-527

Henrichs S.M., Williams. P.M., 1985, Dissolved and Particulate Amino Acids and Carbohydrates in the Sea Surface Microlayer, Marine Chemistry, 17, 141-163

Henry R.P., 1996, Multiple Roles of Carbonic-Anhydrase in Cellular-Transport and Metabolism, Annual Review of Physiology, 58, 523-538

Hesshaimer V., Heimann M., Levin I., 1994, Radiocarbon Evidence for a Smaller Oceanic Carbon-Dioxide Sink than Previously Believed, Nature, 370, 201-203

Hewettemmett D., Tashian R.E., 1996, Functional Diversity, Conservation, and Convergence in the Evolution of the Alpha-Carbonic, Beta-Carbonic, and Gamma- Carbonic Anhydrase Gene Families, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 5,, 50-77

Higbie R., 1935, The Rate of Absorption of a Pure Gas into a Still Liquid During Short Periods of Exposure, Transactions of the American Institute of Chemical Engineering, 35, 365-373

Hiltonen T., Karlsson. J., Palmqvist. K., Clarke. A.K., Samuelsson. G., 1995, Purification and Characterisation of an Intracellular Carbonic Anhydrase from the Unicellular Green Alga Coccomyxa, Planta, 195, 345-351

Ho D.T., Bliven L.F., Wanninkhof R., Schlosser P., 1997,, The Effect of Rain on Air-Water Gas Exchange, Tellus Series B, 49, 149-158

Hoover T.E., Berkshire. D.C., 1969, Effects of Hydration on Carbon Dioxide Exchange Across an Air-Water Interface, Journal of Geophysical Research, 74, 456-464

Hunter K.A., Liss P.S., 1981, Organic Sea Surface Films, In "Marine Organic Chemistry", Eds E.K.Duursma, R.Dawson, Elsevier New York, 259-298

Iglesias-Rodriguez M.D., Merrett M.J., 1996, Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Utilization and the Development of Extracellular Carbonic Anhydrase by the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum Tricornatum, New Phytologist, 135, 163-168

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change WG1, 1995, The Science of Climate Change: Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Second Assessment Report of the IPCC, Eds J T. Houghton, L.G. Meitra-Filhho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, Cambridge UP,

International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme, 1999, Ocean Storage of CO2, IEA GHG, ISBN 1 898373 25 6,

Israel A.A., Gonzalez E.L., 1996, Photosynthesis and Inorganic Carbon Utilization in Pleurochrysis Sp (Haptophyta), a Coccolithophorid Alga, Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 137,-3, 243- 250

Jahne B., Heinz. G., Dietrich. W., 1987b, Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficients of Sparingly Soluble Gases in Water, Journal of Geophysical Research, 92 C10, 10767-10776

Jahne B., Libner P., Fischer R., Billenand T., Plate E.J., 1989, Investigating the Transfer Processes Across the Free Aqueous Viscous Boundary Layer by the Controlled Flux Method, Tellus, 41B, 177-195

Jahne B., Munnich K.O., Siegenthaler U., 1979, Measurements of Gas Exchange and Momentum Transfer in a Circular Wind-Water Tunnel., Tellus, 31, 321-329

Jahne B., Munnich. K.O., Bosinger. R., Dutzi. A., Huber. P., Libner. P., 1987a, On the Parameters Influencing Air-Water Gas Exchange, Journal of Geophysical Research, 92 C2, 1937-1949

Jahne B., Wais T., Memery L., Caulliez G., Merlivat L., Munnich K.O., Coantic M., 1985, He and Rn Gas-Exchange Experiments in the Large Wind-Wave Facility of IMST, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 90no. C6, 1989-1997

Jain A.K., Kheshgi H.S., Wuebbles D.J., 1997, Is There an Imbalance in the Global Budget of Bomb-Produced Radiocarbon?, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 102 D1, 1327-1333

Jenkinson I.R., Biddanda, B.A., 1995, Bulk-Phase Viscoelastic Properties of Seawater - Relationship with Plankton Components, Journal of Plankton Research, 17, 2251-2274

Johnmckay M.E., Colman B., 1997, Variation in the Occurrence of External Carbonic Anhydrase Among Strains of the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum Tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae), Journal of Phycology, 33, 988-990

Johnson K.M., Wills K.D., Butler D.B., Johnson W.K., Wong C.S., 1993, Coulometric Total Carbon-Dioxide Analysis for Marine Studies - Maximizing the Performance of an Automated Gas Extraction System and Coulometric Detector, Marine Chemistry, 44-4, 167-187

Johnson K.S., 1982, Carbon Dioxide Hydration and Dehydration Kinetics in Seawater, Limnology and Oceanography, 27, 849-855

Johnston A.M., 1991, The Acquisition of Inorganic Carbon by Marine Macroalgae, Canadian Journal of Botany-Revue Canadienne de Botanique, 69, 1123-1132

Joos F., Bruno M., Fink R., Siegenthaler U., Stocker T.F., Le Quere C., Sarmiento J.L., 1996, An Efficient and Accurate Representation of Complex Oceanic and Biospheric Models of Anthropogenic Carbon Uptake, Tellus, 48B, 397-417

Kanwisher J., 1963, Effect of Wind on CO2 Exchange Across the Sea Surface, Journal of Geophysical Research, 68, 3921-3927

Karlsson J., Hiltonen. T., Husic. D., Ramazanov. Z., Samuelsson. F., 1995, Intracellular Carbonic Anhydrase of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Plant Physiology, 109, 533-539

Keeling R.F., 1993, On the Role of Large Bubbles in Air-Sea Gas-Exchange and Supersaturation in the Ocean, Journal of Marine Research, 51, 237-271

Keeling R.F., Shertz S.R., 1992, Seasonal and Interannual Variations in Atmospheric Oxygen and Implications for the Global Carbon-Cycle, Nature, 358, 723-727

Keeling R.F., Stephens B.B., Najjar R.G., Doney S.C., Archer D., Heimann M., 1998, Seasonal Variations in the Atmospheric O2/N2 Ratio in Relation to the Kinetics of Air-Sea Gas Exchange, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 141-163

Keil R.G., Kirchman D.L., 1994, Abiotic Transformation of Labile Protein to Refractory Protein in Sea-Water, Marine Chemistry, 45, 187-196

Keil R.G., Kirchman. D.L., 1993, Dissolved Combined Amino Acids: Chemical Form and Utilization by Marine Bacteria, Limnology and Oceanography, 38, 1256-1270

Keller K., 1994, Chemical Enhancement of Carbon Dioxide Transfer Across the Air-Sea Interface, MSc Thesis (Env Eng), Massachusetts Institute of Technology.,

Khalifah R.G., 1971, The CO2 Hydration Activity of Carbonic Anhydrase: 1. Stop-Flow Kinetic Studies on the Native Human Isoaomes B & C, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 246, 2561-2573

King D.B., Saltzman. E.S., 1995, Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficent of Sulphur Hexafluoride in Water, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100 C4, 7083-7088

Kirk G.J.D., Rachhpalsingh, 1992, Simultaneous Transfer Across an Air-Water-Interface of Gases That Interact Through Acid-Base Reactions, Atmospheric Environment Part A-General Topics, 26, 1651-1660

Komori S., Nagaosa R., Murakami Y., 1993, Turbulence Structure and Mass-Transfer Across a Sheared Air-Water-Interface in Wind-Driven Turbulence, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 249, 161-183

Kunz G.J., de Leeuw. G., Larsen. S.E., Hansen. F. Aa, 1995, Over-Water Eddy Correlation Measurements of Fluxes of Momentum, Heat, Water Vapor and CO2, In "Air Water Gas Transfer" Eds: B.Jahne, E.C. Monahan, AEON Verlag and Studio, Hanau,

Kurz K., Maier-Reimer E., 1995, Effect of Plankton Dynamics on Seasonal Carbon Fluxes, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Submitted

< B>

Leach H., Watson A.J., Follows M., 1995, Modeling Atmosphere Ocean CO2 Transfer - Discussion, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 348, 132 Discussion

Ledwell J.J., 1984, The Variation of the Gas Transfer Coefficient with Molecular Diffusivity, In "Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces" Eds W. Brutsaert and G.H. Jirka, Reidel, 293-302

Lee J.G., Roberts S.B., Morel F.M.M., 1995, Cadmium - a Nutrient for the Marine Diatom Thalassiosira- Weissflogii, Limnology and Oceanography, 40, 1056-1063

Lefevre N., 1995, A First Step Towards a Reference ΔpCO2 Map for the North Atlantic Ocean, IGBP-DIS Working Paper #11, IGBP-DIS, Toulouse France,

Legrand, M., Feniet Saigne, C., Saltzman, E.S., Germain C., Barkov N.I., Petrov V.N., 1991, Ice-Core Record of Oceanic Emissions of Dimethyl Sulphide During the Last Climate Cycle, Nature, 350, 144-146

Liang J.Y., Lipscomb. W.N., 1989, Theoretical Study of Carbonic Anhydrase-Catalyzed Hydration of CO2: a Brief Review, International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, 36, 299-312

Liljas A., Kannnan K.K., Bergsten P.C., Warra I., Fridborg A., Strandberg B., Carlborn U., Jarup L., Lovgren S., Petef N., 1972, Nature New Biology, 235, 131

Lion L.W., Leckie J.O., 1981, The Biogeochemistry of the Air-Sea Interface, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 9, 449-486

Liss P.S., 1983, Gas Transfer., Experiments and Geochemical Implications., In "Air Sea Exchange of Gases and Particles", Eds P.S. Liss and W.G.N. Slinn, Reidel, 241-298

Liss P.S., 1973, Processes of Gas Exchange Across an Air-Water Interface, Deep Sea Research, 20, 221-238

Liss P.S., 1989, Organic Geochemistry of the Sea-Surface Microlayer, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 197, 44

Liss P.S., Watson A.J., Liddicoat M.I., Malin G., Nightingale P.D., Turner S.M., Upstill-Goddard R.C., 1993, Trace Gases and Air-Sea Exchanges, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Physical Sciences and Engineering, 343, 531-541

Liss P.S., Balls P.W., Martinelli F.N., Coantic M., 1981, The Effect of Evaporation and Condensation on Gas Transfer Across an Air-Water-Interface, Oceanologica Acta, 4, 129-138

Liss P.S., Galloway J.N., 1993, Air-Sea Exchange of Sulphur and Nitrogen and Their Interaction in the Marine Environment, In "Interaction of C,N,P, and S in Biogeochemical Cycles and Global Change, NATO ASI Series Vol 14, ed. R. Wollast, F.T. Mackenzie, L.Chou, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg

Liss P.S., Merlivat. L., 1986, Air-Sea Gas Exchange Rates: Introduction and Synthesis, In "The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling", P.B. Menard (Ed), Dordrecht, Holland, 113-127

Liss P.S., Slater. P.G., 1974, Flux of Gases Across the Air-Sea Interface, Nature, 247, 181-184

Lovelock J, 1988, The Ages of Gaia, Oxford University Press,

Lu D.S., Voth G.A., 1998, Proton Transfer in the Enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase: an Ab Initio Study, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 120, 4006-4014

Maeda H., Kobayashi M., Sakata T., Hayashi R., 1997, Carbonic Anhydrase Activities of Cyanobacterial Picophytoplankton in Lake Biwa, Fisheries Science, 63, 1054-1055

Maier-Reimer E., 1993, Geochemical Cycles in an Ocean General Circulation Model, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 7, 645-677

Malin G.,Turner S.M., Liss P.S., Aiken, 1992, Sulfur - the Plankton Climate Connection, Journal of Phycology, 28, 590-597

Manabe S., Stouffer R.J., 1994, Multiple-Century Response of a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model to an Increase of Atmospheric Carbon-Dioxide, Journal of Climate, 7, 5-23

Mann M.E., Bradley R.S., Hughes M.K., 1999, Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millenium: Inferences, Uncertainties and Limitations, Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 759

Maren T.H., Rayburn. C.S., Liddell. N.E., 1976, Inhibition by Anions of Human Red Cell Carbonic Anhydrase B: Physiological and Biochemical Implications, Science, 191, 469-472

Matthews B.J.H., Jones A.C., Theodorou N.K., Tudhope A.W., 1995, Excitation Emission Matrix Fluroescence Spectroscopy Applied to Humic Acid Bands in Coral Reefs`, Marine Chemistry, 55, 317-332

Matthews. B.J.H., 1997, Climate Engineering: A Critical Review of Proposals, Their Scientific and Political Context, and Possible Impacts, Report compiled for "Scientusts for Global Responsibility" London
(Available online here)

McIntosh D.H., Thom A.S., 1969, Essentials of Meteorology, Wykeham Publications London,

McNeil C., Merlivat L., 1996, The Warm Oceanic Surface Layer: Implications for CO2 Fluxes and Surface Gas Measurements, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 3575-3578

McNiel C.L., Merlivat L., 1996, The Warm Oceanic Surface Layer: Implications for CO2 Fluxes and Surface Gas Measurements, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 3575-3578

Meldrum N.U., Roughton. F.J.W., 1933, Carbonic Anhydrase: Its Preparation and Properties, Journal of Physiology, 80, 113-142

Mercado J.M., Figueroa F.L., Niell F.X., Axelsson L., 1997, A New Method for Estimating External Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Macroalgae, Journal of Phycology, 33, 999-1006

Mercado J.M., Gordillo F.J.L., Figueroa F.L., Niell F.X., 1998, External Carbonic Anhydrase and Affinity for Inorganic Carbon in Intertidal Macroalgae, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 221, 209-220

Merlivat L., Dandonneau Y., Mcneil C., 1996, A New Instrument for Measuring Time Series of pCO2 at Sea, Annalae Geophysicae, Supp 2, 14, 651

Merlivat L., McNeil C.L., 1996, Monitoring pCO2, Fluorescence and Temperature at the Ocean Surface by a CARIOCA Buoy: Results from the Mediterranean Sea and the Greenland Sea., Abstract of EGS Meeting, (Autumn 1996),

Merlivat L., Memery L., 1983, Gas-Exchange Across an Air-Water-Interface - Experimental Results and Modelling of Bubble Contribution to Transfer, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans and Atmospheres, 88 C1, 707-724

Miller R.F. and Berkshire D.C., 1971, Method for Determination of Reaction Rates of Carbon Dioxide and Hydroxyl Ion with Seawater, Environmental Science and Technology, 5, 127-133

Millero. F.J., 1995, Thermodynamics of the Carbon Dioxide System in the Oceans, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 661-677

Mitchell C., Beardall J., 1996, Inorganic Carbon Uptake by an Antarctic Sea-Ice Diatom, Nitzschia-Frigida, Polar Biology, 16, 95-99

Monahan, E.C., Spilline. M.C., 1984, The Role of Oceanic Whitecaps in Air-Sea Gas Exchange, In "Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces" Eds W. Brutsaert and G.H. Jirka, 495-503

Morel F.M.M., Reinfelder J.R., Roberts S.B., Chamberlain C.P., Lee J.G., Yee D., 1994, Zinc and Carbon Co-Limitation of Marine-Phytoplankton, Nature, 369, 740-742

Morel F.M.M., Hudson. R.J.M., Price. N.M., 1991, Limitation of Productivity by Trace Metals in the Sea, Limnology and Oceanography, 36, 1742-1755

Murphy P.P., Harrison D.E., Feely R.A., Takahashi T., Weiss R.F., Gammon G.H., 1998, Variability of ΔpCO2 in the Subarctic North Pacific. a Comparison of Results from Four Expeditions, Tellus Series B, 50, 185-204

Murzaeva S.V., 1990, Comparative Study of Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Several Representatives of Marine Macrophytic Algae at Separate Stages of Autogenesis. Soviet Journal of Plant Physiology, (Fiziologiya Rastenii), 37, 31-38

Newman J.R., Raven J.A., 1993, Carbonic-Anhydrase in Ranunculus-Penicillatus spp Pseudofluitans - Activity, Location and Implications for Carbon Assimilation, Plant Cell and Environment, 16, 491-500

Nielsen M.V., 1995, Photosynthetic Characteristics of the Coccolithophorid Emiliania-Huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) Exposed to Elevated Concentrations of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon, Journal of Phycology, 31, 715-719

Nightingale P.D., Malin G., Law C.S., Watson A.J., Liss P.S., Liddicoat M.I., Upstill-Goddard R.C., 1999, In-Situ Evaluation of Air-Sea Gas Exchange Parameterisations Using Novel Conservative and Volatile Tracers., Global Biogeochemical Cycles, in press,

Nimer N.A., Guan Q., Merrett M.J., 1994, Extracellular and Intracellular Carbonic-Anhydrase in Relation to Culture Age in a High-Calcifying Strain of Emiliania-Huxleyi Lohmann, New Phytologist, 126, 601-607

Nimer N.A., Merrett M.J., 1996, The Development of a CO2-Concentrating Mechanism in Emiliania- Huxleyi, New Phytologist, 133, 383-389

Nimer N.A., Brownlee C., Merrett M.J., 1999, Extracellular Carbonic Anhydrase Facilitiates Carbon Dioixde Availability for Photosynthesis in the Marine Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum Micans, Plant Physiolgoy, 120, 105-111

Nimer N.A., Iglesias-Rodriguez M.D., Merrett M.J., 1997, Bicarbonate Utilisation by Marine Phytoplankton Species, Journal of Phycology, 33, 625-631

Nimer N.A., Warren M., Merrett M.J., 1998, The Regulation of Photosynthetic Rate and Activation of Extracellular Carbonic Anhydrase Under CO2-Limiting Conditions in the Marine Diatom Skeletonema Costatum, Plant, Cell and Environment, 21, 805-812

Nolting R.F., 1986, Copper, Zinc, Cadmium, Nickel, Iron and Manganese in the Southern Bight of the North-Sea, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 17, 113-117

Ocampo-Torres F. J., Donelan M.A, 1995, On the Influence of Fetch and the Wave Field on the CO2 Transfer Process Laboratory Measurements, In "Air-Water Gas Transfer", Eds Jahne B. and Monahan E.C., AEON Verlag and Studio Hanau

Okazaki M., 1974, Bulletins of Tokyo Gakugei University Series IV, 26, 209-218

Okazaki M., Aruga S., Okamura Y., 1992, Role of Carbonic-Anhydrase in Photosynthesis of Unicellular Marine-Algae Coccolithophorids (Haptophyta), Photosynthesis Research, 34, 202

Oost W.A., 1995, The ASGASEX 93 Experiment, In "Air Water Gas Transfer" Ed B.Jahne and B.C. Monahan, AEON Verlag and studio, Hanau

Orr J.C., 1997, Ocean Carbon Cycle Models, Exploring the Differences, Research GAIM, 1, 8-10

Orr J.C., 1993, Accord Between Ocean Models Predicting Uptake of Anthropogenic CO2, Water Air and Soil Pollution, 70-4, 465-481

Palmqvist K., Sultemeyer D., Baldet P., Andrews T.J., Badger M.R., 1995, Characterization of Inorganic Carbon Fluxes, Carbonic Anhydrase(S) and Ribulose-1,5-Biphosphate Carboxylase-Oxygenase in the Green Unicellular Alga Coccomyxa - Comparisons with Low- CO2 Cells of Chlamydomonas-Reinhardtii, Planta, 197, 352-361

Palmqvist K., Ramazanov Z., Samuelsson G., 1990, The Role of Extracellular Carbonic Anhydrase for Accumulation of Inorganic Carbon in the Green Algae Chlamynomonas Reinhardii. a Comparison Between Wild-Type and Cell-Wall-Less Mutant Cells, Physiologia Plantarum, 80, 267-276

Park P.K., 1969, The Oceanic CO2 System, an Evaluation of Ten Methods of Investigation., Limnology and Oceanography, 14, 179

Peng T.H., 1973, Determination of Gas Exchange Rates Across the Sea-Air Interface by the Radon Method, PhD Thesis Columbia University,

Peng T.H., Broecker W.S., Mathieu G.G., Li Y.H., 1979, Radon Evasion Rates in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans as Determined During the GEOSECS Program, Journal of Geophysical Research, 84, 2471-2486

Peng T.H., Broecker. W.S., 1980, Gas Exchange Rates for Three Closed Basin Lakes, Limnology and Oceanography, 25, 789-796

Phillips L.F., 1991b, Steady-State Heat and Matter Exchange at a Phase Interface, Journal of the Chemical Society Faraday Transactions, 87, 2187-2191

Phillips L.F., 1992, CO2 Transport at the Air-Sea Interface - Numerical-Calculations for a Surface Renewal Model with Coupled Fluxes, Geophysical Research Letters, 19, 1667-1670

Phillips L.F., 1994, Experimental Demonstration of Coupling of Heat and Matter Fluxes at a Gas-Water Interface, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 99 D9, 18577-18584

Phillips L.F., 1991a, CO2 Transport at the Air-Sea Interface - Effect of Coupling of Heat and Matter Fluxes, Geophysical Research Letters, 18, 1221-1224

Pinsent B.R.W., Pearson L., Roughton F.J., 1956, The Kinetics of Combination of Carbon Dioxide with Hydroxide Ions, Transactions of the Faraday Society, 52, 1512-1520

Platt T., Sathyendranath S., Longhurst A., 1995, Remote Sensing of Primary Production in the Ocean: Promise and Fulfilment, Philisophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B, 348, 191-206

Portielje R., Lijklema L., 1995, Carbon-Dioxide Fluxes Across the Air-Water-Interface and Its Impact on Carbon Availability in Aquatic Systems, Limnology and Oceanography, 40, 690-699

Protoschillkrebs G., Wilhelm. C., Kesselmeier. J., 1995, Consumption of Carbonyl Sulfide by Chlamydomonas-Reinharrdtii with Different Activities of Carbonic-Anhydrase Induced by Different CO2 Growing Regimes, Botanica Acta, 108, 445-448

Quay P.D., Tilbrook. B., Wong. C.S., 1992, Oceanic Uptake of Fossil-Fuel CO2 - 13C Evidence, Science, 256, 74-79

Quinn J.A., Otto. N.C., 1971, Carbon Dioxide Exchange at the Air-Sea Interface: Flux Augmentation by Chemical Reaction, Journal of Geophysical Research, 76, 1539-1549

Quiroga O., Gonzalez E.L., 1993, Carbonic-Anhydrase in the Chloroplast of a Coccolithophorid (Prymnesiophyceae), Journal of Phycology, 29, 321-324

Ramazanov Z., Shiraiwa Y., Delrio M.J., Rubio J., 1995b, Effect of External CO2 Concentrations on Protein-Synthesis in the Green-Algae Scenedesmus-Obliquus (Turp) Kutz and Chlorella- Vulgaris (Kosikov), Planta, 197, 272-277

Ramazanov Z., Sosa P.A., Henk M.C., Delrio M.J., Gomezpinchetti J.L., Reina G.G., 1995a, Low CO2 Inducible Protein-Synthesis in the Green-Alga Dunaliella-Tertiolecta, Planta, 195, 519-524

Rau G.H., Riebesell U., Wolfgladrow D., 1996, A Model of Photosynthetic 13C Fractionation by Marine- Phytoplankton Based on Diffusive Molecular CO2 Uptake, Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 133, 275- 285

Raven J. R., Johnston A.M., 1991, Inorganic Carbon Acquisition Mechanisms in Marine Phytoplankton, and Their Implications for the Use of Other Resources, Limnology and Oeanography, 36, 1701-1714

Raven J.A., 1995, Photosynthetic and Non-Photosynthetic Roles of Carbonic Anhydrase in Algae and Cyanobacteria, Phycologia, 34, 93-101

Raven J.A., 1993, Phytoplankton - Limits on Growth-Rates, Nature, 361, 209-210

Raven J.A., Johnston. A.M., Turpin. D.H., 1993, Influence of Changes in CO2 Concentration and Temperature on Marine Phytoplankton 13C/12C Ratios and an Analysis of Possible Mechanisms, Global and Planetary Change, 8, 1-12

Redfield A.C., 1948, The Exchange of Oxygen Across the Sea Surface, Journal of Marine Research, 7, 347-361

Revelle R., Suess H., 1957, Carbon Dioxide Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Ocean and the Question of an Increase of Atmospheric CO2 During the Past Decades, Tellus, 9, 18-27

Riebesell U., Wolf-Gladrow. D.A., Smetacek. V., 1993, Carbon Dioxide Limitation of Marine Phytoplankton Growth Rates, Nature, 361, 249-251

Roberts S.B., Lane T.W., Morel F.M.M., 1997, Carbonic Anhydrase in the Marine Diatom Thalassiosira Weissflogii (Bacillariophyceae), Journal of Phycology, 33, 845-850

Robertson J.E., Robinson C., Turner D.R., Holligan P., Watson A.J., Boyd P., Fernandez E., Finch M., 1994, The Impact of a Coccolithophore Bloom on Oceanic Carbon Uptake in the Northeast Atlantic During Summer, Deep-Sea Research Part I, 41, 297

Robertson J.E., Watson A.J., 1992, Thermal Skin Effect of the Surface Ocean and Its Implications for CO2 Uptake, Nature, 358, 738-740

Romano J.C., 1996, Sea-Surface Slick Occurrence in the Open Sea (Mediterranean, Red-Sea, Indian-Ocean) in Relation to Wind-Speed, Deep-Sea Research Part I, 43, 411-423

Rotatore C., Colman. B., Kuzma. M., 1995, The Active Uptake of Carbon Dioxide by the Marine Diatoms Phaeodactylum Tricornatum and Cyclotella Sp., Plant, Cell and Environment, 18, 913-918

Roughton F.J.W., 1935, Recent Work on Carbon Dioxide Transport by the Blood, Physiological Reviews, 15, 241-296

Roughton F.J.W., 1941, The Kinetics and Rapid Thermochemistry of Carbonic Acid, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 62, 1019-1026

Roy R.N., Roy L.N., Vosel K.M., Porter-Moore C., Pearson T., Good C.E., Millero F.S., Campbell D.M., 1993, The Dissociation Constants of Carbonic Acid in Seawater at Salinities 5-45 and Temperatures 0-45, Marine Chemistry, 44,

Sabine C.L., Key R.M., 1998, Controls on f(CO2) in the South Pacific, Marine Chemistry, 60-2, 95-110

Saliot A., Marty J.C., Scribe P., Sicre M.A., Viets T.C., Deleeuw J.W., Schenck P.A., Boon J.J., 1991, Characterization of Particulate Organic-Matter in Mediterranean Sea-Surface Films and Underlying Water by Flash Pyrolysis and Gas-Chromatographic Analyses, Organic Geochemistry, 17, 329-340

Santer B.D., Taylor K.E., Wigley T.M.L., Johns T.C., Jones P.D., Karoly D.J., Mitchell J.F.B., Oort A.H., Penner J.E., Ramaswamy V., Schwarzkopf M.D., Stouffer R.J., Tett S., 1996, A Search for Human Influences on the Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere, Nature, 382, 39-46

Sanyal G., Maren. T.H., 1981, Thermodynamics of Carbonic Anhydrase Catalysis, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 256, 608-612

Sarmiento J.L., Le Quere C., 1996, Oceanic Carbon-Dioxide Uptake in a Model of Century-Scale Global Warming, Science, 274, 1346-1350

Sarmiento J.L., Hughes T.M.C., Stouffer R.J., Manabe S., 1998, Simulated Response of the Ocean Carbon Cycle to Anthropogenic Climate Warming, Nature, 393, 245-249

Schudlich R., Emerson S., 1995, Gas Supersaturation in the Surface Ocean: the Roles of Heat Flux, Gas Exchange and Bubbles, Deep Sea Research Ii, 43-3, 569-589

Scott J.C., 1975, The Preperation of Water for Surface-Clean Fluid Mechanics, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 69, 339-351

Sekino K., Shiraiwa Y., 1994, Accumulation and Utilization of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon by a Marine Unicellular Coccolithophorid, Emiliania-Huxleyi, Plant and Cell Physiology, 35, 353-361

Shapiro J., 1997, The Role of Carbon Dioxide in the Initiation and Maintenance of Blue-Green Dominance in Lakes, Freshwater Biology, 37, 307-323

Shingles R., Moroney J.V., 1997, Measurement of Carbonic Anhydrase Activity Using a Sensitive Fluorometric Assay, Analytical Biochemistry, 252, 190-197

Sieburth J. McN., Conover J.T., 1965, Slicks Associated with Trichodesmium Blooms in the Sargasso Sea, Nature, 205, 830-831

Sieburth J. McN., Willis P.J., Johnson K.M., Burney C.M., Lavoie D.M., Jinga K.R., Caron D.A., French F.W, Johnson P.W, Davis P.G., 1976, Dissolved Organic Matter and Heterotrophic Microneuston in the Surface Microlayers of the North Atlantic, Science, 194, 1415-1418

Sieburth J.McN., 1983, In "Air Sea Gas Exchange" NATO ASI C Series, 68, 121

Siegenthaler U. and Sarmiento J.L., 1993, Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Ocean, Nature, 365, 119-125

Silverman D.N., 1991, The Catalytic Mechanism of Carbonic Anhydrase, Canadian Journal of Botany, 69, 1070-1078

Silverman D.N., Tu C.K., 1975, Buffer Dependence of Carbonic Anhydrase Catalysed Oxygen-18 Exchange at Equilibrium, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 97, 2263-2269

Smethie W.M., Takahashi T.T., Chipmand.W., Ledwell J.R., 1985, Gas Exchange and Carbon Dioxide Flux in the Tropical Atlantic Determined from 222Rn and pCO2 Measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research, 90 C4, 97005-7022

Smith M., Westbroek P., 1995, Modelling Inorganic Carbon Fluxes in Unicellular Algae, Paper Presented at "Ehux" Conference, Natural History Musem, London,

Smith S.D., Jones E.P., 1985, Evidence for Wind-Pumping of Air-Sea Gas-Exchange Based on Direct Measurements of CO2 Fluxes, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 90 C1, 869-875

Smith S.V., 1985, Physical, Chemical, and Biological Characteristics of the Carbon Dioxide Gas Flux Across the Air-Water Interface, Plant Cell and Environment, 8, 387-398

Smith S.D., Anderson. R.J., Jones. E.P., Desjardins. R.L., Moore. R.M., Herzman. O. Johnson. B.D., 1991, A New Measurement of CO2 Eddy Flux in the Near Shore Atmospheric Surface Layer, Journal of Geophysical Research, 96, 8881-8887

Soloviev A.V., Schlussel P., 1994, Parameterization of the Cool Skin of the Ocean and of the Air Ocean Gas Transfer on the Basis of Modeling Surface Renewal, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24, 1339-1346

Stocker T.F., Schmittner A., 1997, Influence of CO2 Emission Rates on the Stability of the Thermohaline Circulation, Nature, 388, 862-865

Sultemeyer D., Price G.D., Yu J.W., Badger M.R., 1995, Characterization of Carbon-Dioxide and Bicarbonate Transport During Steady-State Photosynthesis in the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus Strain pcc7002, Planta, 197, 597-607

Sultemeyer D., Schmidt. C., Fock. H.P., 1993, Carbonic Anhydrase in Higher Plants and Aquatic Microorganisms, Physiologia Plantarum, 88, 179-190

Takahashi T., Takahashi T.T., Sutherland S.C., 1995, An Assessment of the Role of the North-Atlantic as a CO2 Sink, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 348, 143- 151

Takahashi T., Feely R.A., Weiss R.F., Wanninkhof R.H., Chipman D.W., Sutherland S.C., Takahashi T.T., 1997, Global Air-Sea Flux of CO2: an Estimate Based on Measurements of Sea-Air pCO2 Difference, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, 8292-8299

Tans P.P., Fung. I.Y., Takahashi. T., 1990, Observational Constraints on the Global Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Budget, Science, 247, 1421-1438

Taylor A.H., Watson A.J., Robertson J.E., 1992, The Influence of the Spring Phytoplankton Bloom on Carbon-Dioxide and Oxygen Concentrations in the Surface Waters of the Northeast Atlantic During 1989, Deep-Sea Research Part A-Oceanographic Research Papers, 39A, 137-152

Tett S.F.B., Stott P.A., Allen M.R., Ingram W.J., Mitchell J.F.B., 1999, Causes of Twentieth Century Temperature Change Near the Earth's Surface, Nature, 399, 569-572

Tortell P.D., Reinfelder J.R., Morel F.M.M., 1997, Active Uptake of Bicarbonate by Diatoms, Nature, 390, 243-244

Tseng R.S., Viechnicki J.T., Skop R.A., Brown J.W., 1992, Sea-To-Air Transfer of Surface-Active Organic-Compounds by Bursting Bubbles, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 97 C4, 5201-5206

Tyrrell T., Taylor A.H., 1995, Latitudinal and Seasonal-Variations in Carbon-Dioxide and Oxygen in the Northeast Atlantic and the Effects on Emiliania- Huxleyi and Other Phytoplankton, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 9, 585-604

Upstill-Goddard R.C., Watson A.J., Wood J., Liddicoat M.I., 1991, Sulfur-Hexafluoride and 3He as Sea-Water Tracers - Deployment Techniques and Continuous Underway Analysis for Sulfur-Hexafluoride, Analytica Chimica Acta, 249, 555-562

Upstill-Goddard R.C., Watson. A.J., Liss. P.S., Liddicoat. M.I., 1990, Gas Transfer Velocities in Lakes Measured with SF6, Tellus, 42B, 364-377

Vanscoy K.A., Morris. K.P., Robertson. J.E., Watson. A.J., 1995, Thermal Skin Effect on the Air-Sea Flux of Carbon Dioxide:- a Seasonal High-Resolution Estimate, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 9, 253-262

Wallace D.W.R., Wirick C.D., 1992, Large Air Sea Gas Fluxes Associated with Breaking Waves, Nature, 356, .694-696

Walsh D., 1996, View from the Other Side of the Air-Sea Interface, Sea Technology, 37, 29

Walsh J.J., 1991, Importance of Continental Margins in the Marine Biogeochemical Cycling of Carbon and Nitrogen, Nature, 350, 53-55

Wanninkhof R., 1985, Kinetic Fractionation of the Carbon Isotopes 13C and 12C During Transfer of CO2 from Air to Seawater, Tellus Series B, 37, 128-135

Wanninkhof R., 1992, Relationship Between Wind-Speed and Gas-Exchange Over the Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 97 C5, 7373-7382

Wanninkhof R., Asher W., Weppernig R., Chen H., Schlosser P., Langdon C., Sambrotto R., 1993, Gas Transfer Experiment on Georges Bank Using 2 Volatile Deliberate Tracers, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 98 C11, 20237-20248

Wanninkhof R., Knox M., 1996, Chemical Enhancement of CO2 Exchange in Natural-Waters, Limnology and Oceanography, 41, 689-697

Wanninkhof R., Ledwell. J.R., Broecker. W.S., 1985, Gas Exchange Wind-Speed Relation Measured with Sulphur Hexafluoride on a Lake, Science, 227, 1224-1226

Wanninkhof R., Asher. W., Monahan. E., 1995, The Influence of Bubbles on Air-Water Gas Exchange: Results from Gas Transfer Experiments During WABEX-93, In "Air Water Gas Transfer" Eds: B.Jahne, E.C. Monahan, "AEON Verlag and Studio, Hanau, Germany.

Wanninkhof R., Hitchcock G., Wiseman W.J., Vargo G., Ortner P.B., Asher W., Ho D.T., Schlosser P., Dickson M.L., Masserini R., Fanning K., Zhang J.Z., 1997, Gas Exchange, Dispersion, and Biological Productivity on the West Florida Shelf: Results from a Lagrangian Tracer Study, Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 1767-1770

Wanninkhof R., Ledwell J.R., Broecker W.S., Hamilton M., 1987, Gas-Exchange on Mono Lake and Crowley Lake California, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 92C13, 14567-14580

Wanninkhof R., Ledwell. J.R., Watson. A.J., 1991, Analysis of Sulfur Hexafluoride in Seawater, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 96 C5, 8733-8740

Wanninkhof R., Thoning K., 1993, Measurement of Fugacity of CO2 in Surface Water Using Continuous and Discrete Sampling Methods, Marine Chemistry, 44, 189-204

Wanninkhof R.H., Bliven L.F., 1991, Relationship Between Gas-Exchange, Wind-Speed, and Radar Backscatter in a Large Wind-Wave Tank, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 96 C2, 2785-2796

Watson A.J., Robinson C., Robertson J.E., Williams P.J.L., Fasham M.J.R., 1991a, Spatial Variability in the Sink for Atmospheric Carbon-Dioxide in the North-Atlantic, Nature, 350, 50-53

Watson A.J., Upstill-Goddard R.C., Liss P.S., 1991b, Air Sea Gas-Exchange in Rough and Stormy Seas Measured by a Dual-Tracer Technique, Nature, 349, 145-147

Wei Y., Wu J., 1992, Insitu Measurements of Surface-Tension, Wave Damping, and Wind Properties Modified by Natural Films, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 97 C4, 5307-5313

Weiss R.F., 1981, Determinations of CO2 and Methane by Dual Catalyst Flame Ionization Chromatography and Nitrous Oxide by Electron Capture Chromatography, Journal of Chromatographic Science, 19, 611-616

Weiss R.F., 1970, The Solubility of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon in Water and Seawater, Deep Sea Research, 17, 721-735

Weiss R.F., 1974, Carbon Dioxide in Water and Seawater:- the Solubility of a Non-Ideal Gas, Marine Chemistry, 2, 203-215

Weiss R.F., Jahnke. R.A., Keeling. C.D., 1982, Seasonal Effects of Temperature and Salinity on the Partial Pressure of CO2 in Seawater, Nature, 300, 511-512

Wesley M.L., Cook. D.R., Hart. R.L., Williams. R.M, 1982, Air-Sea Exchange of CO2 and Evidence for Enhanced Upward Fluxes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 87 C11, 8827-8832

Whitfield M., Butler R.A., Covington A.K., 1985, The Determination of pH in Estuarine Waters: I. Definition of pH Scales and the Selection of Buffers, Oceanologica Acta, 8, 423-432

Whitfield M., Butler. R.A., Covington. A.K., 1985, The Determination of pH in Estuarine Waters: 1. Definition of pH Scales and the Selection of Buffers, Oceanologia Acta, 8, 423-432

Whitman W.G., 1923, The Two-Film Theory of Gas Absorption, Chemical Metalallurigical Engineering, 29, 146-148

Wigley T.M., 1999, The Science of Climate Change, Global and US Persepctives, Pew Centre For Global Climate Change -Special Report,

Wilbur K.M., Anderson. N.G., 1948, Electrometric and Colourimetric Determination of Carbonic Anhydrase, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 176, 147-154

Wilke C.R., Chang. P., 1955, Corrolation of Diffusion Coefficients in Dilute Solutions, Ai Chemical Engineering Journal, 1, 264-270

Williams G.R., 1983, The Rate of Hydration of Carbon Dioxide in Natural Waters, Ecological Bulletins, 35, 281-289

Williams P.M., Carlucci A.F., Henrichs S.M., Van-Fleet E.S., Horrigan S.G., Reid F.M.H., Robertson K.J., 1986, Chemical and Microbiological Studies of Sea-Surface Films in the Southern Gulf of California and Off the Wset Coast of Baja California, Marine Chemistry, 19, 17-98

Williams T.G. and Turpin. D.H., 1987, The Role of Extracellular Carbonic Anhydrase in Inorganic Carbon Acquisition by Chlamydomonas Reinhardii at Alkaline pH, Plant Physiology, 83, 92-96

Williams T.G., Colman B., 1995, Quantification of the Contribution of CO2, HCO3-, and External Carbonic-Anhydrase to Photosynthesis at Low Dissolved Inorganic Carbon in Chlorella-Saccharophila, Plant Physiology, 107, 245-251

Winn C.D., Li. Y.H., Mackenzie. M.T., Karl. D.M., 1998, Rising Surface Ocean Dissolved Inorganic Carbon at the Hawaii Ocean Time-Series Site, Marine Chemistry, 60, 33-47

Wolfgladrow D., Riebesell U., 1997, Diffusion and Reactions in the Vicinity of Phytoplankton, Marine Chemistry, 59, 17-34

Wong C.S., Chan Y.H., Page J.S., 1995, Geographical, Seasonal and Interannual Variations of Air-Sea CO2 Exchange in the Subtropical Pacific Surface Waters During 1983-1988 .2. Air-Sea CO2, Fluxes with Skin-Temperature Adjustments, Tellus Series B, 47, 431-446

Woolf D.K., 1993, Bubbles and the Air-Sea Transfer Velocity of Gases, Atmosphere-Ocean, 31, 517-540

Woolf D.K., Thorpe S.A., 1991, Bubbles and the Air-Sea Exchange of Gases in Near-Saturation Conditions, Journal of Marine Research, 49, 435-466

Yeats P.A., Campbell J.A., 1983, Nickel, Copper, Cadmium and Zinc in the Northwest Atlantic-Ocean, Marine Chemistry, 12, 43-58

Yee D., Morel F.M.M., 1996, In-Vivo Substitution of Zinc by Cobalt in Carbonic-Anhydrase of a Marine Diatom, Limnology and Oceanography, 41, 573-577

Yu J.W., Price G.D., Badger M.R., 1994, Characterization of CO2 and HCO3- Uptake During Steady-State Photosynthesis in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus-pcc7942, Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 21, 185-195

Zaitsev Y.P., 1971, Marine Neustonology, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA and NSF, Springfield, VA

Note: If you jumped into this page from elsewhere, you may find it more convenient to go to the "frames" version of this thesis, alternatively you can use the links below to jump straight to a particular chapter:

Title Page Abstract Contents Figures Overview Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 Chapter4 Chapter5 Chapter6 Chapter7 Chapter8 Chapter9 Chapter10 Appendix References Acknowledgements Links Download

Hits since 21st April 2000